History of Mongolia
It is said that Mongolia has been inhabited for almost 700,000 years. Many powerful and notorious tribes formed in the midst of the beautiful Gobi Desert and the majestic Altai Mountains, including the Huns, Xianbei, Rouran, Turks, Uyghurs, and Kidan.
Mongolia is home to one of the world's greatest conquerors ever known: Genghis Khan. Originally named Temujin, Genghis was born in 1162. He spent most of his life uniting local tribes to form a single powerful nation. In 1206, he succeeded in forming the Mongol Empire. Ever since, Genghis has been revered as "Khan" (Mongolian for "king") by his people and their posterity. Genghis and his successors created one of the largest contiguous empires in human history. It stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan and from Siberia down to Indochina, including India, the Iranian Plateau, and the Middle East.
This great empire survived until 1368 when Togoon Tomor, the final ruler of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, fled power. Over the next three centuries, Mongolia suffered serious social crisis. The Khaan lost political power and local leaders separated from traditional authorities. Some formed their own lines of monarchy, while the rest of Mongolia dissipated into the countryside.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Qing Dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. During this shift in power, Outer Mongolia proclaimed independence from China during December of 1911. However, this new freedom was short-lived. Just four years later, Mongolia was again an autonomous region of China. Eventually, Mongolia was able to regain its independence. With the support of the Bolsheviks, the nation again separated from China in 1921. Then, in 1924, Mongolia officially became a republic. After declaring "freedom," the country remained a satellite state of the Soviet Union until the early 1990s. Mongolia's first democratic elections were held in July of 1990 and 1992. Once Mongolia adapted a new constitution, the country experienced dramatic democratic and economic changes.